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T. Insperger, J. Milton and G. Stepan. . Semi-discretization for time-delayed neural balance control. SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Sys. 14: 1258-1277.

The observation that time-delayed feedback can stabilize an inverted pendulum motivates the formulation of models of human balance control in terms of delay differential equations (DDEs).Recently the intermittent, digital-like nature of the neural feedback control of balance has become evident. Here, semi-discretization methods for DDEs are used to investigate the control of a Newtonian mechanical structure by a digital controller in the context of a switching model for postural control. In addition to limit cycle and chaotic (``micro-chaos'') oscillations, transiently stabilized balance states are possible even though both the open-loop and the closed-loop systems are globally unstable. The possibility that falls can be an intrinsic component of neural control of balance may provide new insights into how the risk of falling in the elderly can be minimized.

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