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A.L. Weisenhorn, M. Eggar, F. Ohnesorge, S.A.C. Gould, S.P. Heyn, H.G. Hansma, R.L. Sinsheimer, H.E. Gaub, and P.K. Hansma. 1991. Using Force Modulation To Image Surface Elasticities With The Atomic Force Microscope. Nanotechnology 2(103): . Full Article

Using a new mode of scanning, the force modulation mode, surfaces are imaged by the atomic force microscope. The new contrast mechanism relies on variation in the surface elasticity. The cross section of a carbon fibre and epoxy composite is imaged, showing contrast between the two materials. Surface elasticity variations across the cross section of the fibre are revealed. A lateral modulation mode is used to highlight atomic steps in gold.

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